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Our Green House

cara merawat tanaman sukulen, cara merawat kaktus, cara menyiram tanaman sukulen, cara menyiram terrarium, jual terrarium.
Hi, welcome to www.kaktus.id. An online store buy – sell quality cactus and succulents located in Lembang, West Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

What is the difference between a cactus and succulents? Succulents is one of category plants. Succulent plants are leafy plants or thick-trunked due to a stems that can save a lot of water. While the cactus is one of succulents species.

At www.kaktus.id, you can find a hundreds species of unique succulent plant in the catalog www.kaktus.id/shop. With succulents you can beautify your home interior, garden, work space, a terrarium, a work desk or make a wedding souvenir.

Don’t forget to use coupon “WEB” when check out to get 10% discount. Need help or having question? Open CONTACT US menu above! We’ll fast answer your question. Happy shopping.

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Hai, selamat datang di www.kaktus.id. Sebuah toko online jual – beli kaktus dan sukulen berkualitas yang berlokasi di Lembang, Bandung Barat, Jawa Barat, Indonesia.

Apa bedanya kaktus dengan sukulen? Sukulen merupakan salah satu kategori jenis tumbuhan. Tumbuhan sukulen adalah tumbuhan berdaun atau berbatang tebal karena memiliki jaringan yang dapat menyimpan banyak air. Sedangkan kaktus merupakan salah satu jenis tumbuhan sukulen.

Di www.kaktus.id, Anda dapat menemukan ratusan jenis tanaman sukulen unik di katalog www.kaktus.id/shop. Dengan tanaman sukulen Anda bisa berkreasi mempercantik dekorasi interior rumah, taman, ruang kerja, terrarium, meja kerja atau membuat souvenir pernikahan yang unik.

Jangan lupa, gunakan kupon “WEB” saat check out untuk mendapatkan diskon sebesar 10%. Butuh bantuan atau punya pertanyaan? Buka menu CONTACT US di atas! Kami akan cepat menjawab pertanyaan Anda. Selamat berbelanja.

Cactus Store Indonesia | Toko Kaktus Hias Online. Succulents, seeds and cactus. Cactus online store from Lembang, Indonesia. | Kaktus hias untuk dekorasi rumah, interior rumah, taman dan suvenir pernikahan.
A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus)[3] is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,[Note 1] a family comprising about 127 genera with some 1750 known species of the order Caryophyllales.[4] The word “cactus” derives, through Latin, from the Ancient Greek κάκτος, kaktos, a name originally used by Theophrastus for a spiny plant whose identity is not certain.[5] Cacti occur in a wide range of shapes and sizes. Most cacti live in habitats subject to at least some drought. Many live in extremely dry environments, even being found in the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth. Cacti show many adaptations to conserve water. Almost all cacti are succulents, meaning they have thickened, fleshy parts adapted to store water. Unlike many other succulents, the stem is the only part of most cacti where this vital process takes place. Most species of cacti have lost true leaves, retaining only spines, which are highly modified leaves. As well as defending against herbivores, spines help prevent water loss by reducing air flow close to the cactus and providing some shade. In the absence of leaves, enlarged stems carry out photosynthesis. Cacti are native to the Americas, ranging from Patagonia in the south to parts of western Canada in the north—except for Rhipsalis baccifera, which also grows in Africa and Sri Lanka.
Cactus spines are produced from specialized structures called areoles, a kind of highly reduced branch. Areoles are an identifying feature of cacti. As well as spines, areoles give rise to flowers, which are usually tubular and multipetaled. Many cacti have short growing seasons and long dormancies, and are able to react quickly to any rainfall, helped by an extensive but relatively shallow root system that quickly absorb any water reaching the ground surface. Cactus stems are often ribbed or fluted, which allows them to expand and contract easily for quick water absorption after rain, followed by long drought periods. Like other succulent plants, most cacti employ a special mechanism called “crassulacean acid metabolism” (CAM) as part of photosynthesis. Transpiration, during which carbon dioxide enters the plant and water escapes, does not take place during the day at the same time as photosynthesis, but instead occurs at night. The plant stores the carbon dioxide it takes in as malic acid, retaining it until daylight returns, and only then using it in photosynthesis. Because transpiration takes place during the cooler, more humid night hours, water loss is significantly reducedxx
Many smaller cacti have globe-shaped stems, combining the highest possible volume for water storage, with the lowest possible surface area for water loss from transpiration. The tallest[Note 2] free-standing cactus is Pachycereus pringlei, with a maximum recorded height of 19.2 m (63 ft),[6] and the smallest is Blossfeldia liliputiana, only about 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter at maturity.[7] A fully grown saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) is said to be able to absorb as much as 200 U.S. gallons (760 l; 170 imp gal) of water during a rainstorm.[8] A few species differ significantly in appearance from most of the family. At least superficially, plants of the genus Pereskia resemble other trees and shrubs growing around them. They have persistent leaves, and when older, bark-covered stems. Their areoles identify them as cacti, and in spite of their appearance, they, too, have many adaptations for water conservation. Pereskia is considered close to the ancestral species from which all cacti evolved. In tropical regions, other cacti grow as forest climbers and epiphytes (plants that grow on trees). Their stems are typically flattened, almost leaf-like in appearance, with fewer or even no spines, such as the well-known Christmas cactus or Thanksgiving cactus (in the genus Schlumbergera).
Cacti have a variety of uses: many species are used as ornamental plants, others are grown for fodder or forage, and others for food (particularly their fruit). Cochineal is the product of an insect that lives on some cacti.

Many succulent plants in both the Old and New World, such as some Euphorbiaceae (euphorbias), bear a striking resemblance to cacti, and may incorrectly be called “cactus” in common usage.

Jenis Kaktus Hias – Kaktus merupakan jenis tanaman yang mampu hidup di kondisi lingkungan panas, kering, dan kurang air. Habitat asli kaktus adalah di gurun pasir, sehingga mengharuskan kaktus beradaptasi dengan lingkungannya agar bisa bertahan hidup.

Cara dia beradaptasi adalah dengan memiliki daun yang berbentuk duri untuk mengurangi penguapan, memiliki batang berlapis lilin untuk mempertahankan kadar air, memiliki batang yang tersusun oleh jaringan spon untuk menyimpan cadangan air, serta memiliki akar yang sangat panjang dan tersebar di tanah untuk menyerap air dan unsur hara.

Kaktus memiliki banyak varietas yang memiliki batang dan bunga yang sangat unik, sehingga saat ini kaktus banyak dimanfaatkan sebagai tanaman hias. Di Indonesia sendiri, kepopuleran kaktus sebagai tanaman hias sebenarnya sudah cukup lama.

Terbukti dengan banyaknya penjual dan pembudidaya tanaman kaktus hias ini. Tanaman kaktus hias memiliki jenis yang beragam, dan setiap jenisnya memiliki keindahan dan keunikan masing-masing dari segi bentuk dan warna bunganya. Ada juga kaktus hias yang ukurannya kecil, sehingga biasa disebut dengan kaktus mini.

Pesta pernikahan merupakan momen yang sangat istimewa, souvenir akan memberikan kesan manis bagi para tamu undangan. Bagi Anda yang sedang mencari souvenir kami menyediakan souvenir yang lebih ramah lingkungan. Nah inilah green souvenir.

Green souvenir ini berbahan dasar tanaman, dimulai pada tahun 2008 berawal dari kepedulian terhadap isu-isu lingkungan yang beredar di masyarakat kita tangkap dalam menjadikan sebuah pasar yang potenssial untuk menjadikan souvenir berbahan dasar tanaman kaktus. Dari hal kecil ini akan menumbuhkan kecintaan masyarakat terhadap tanaman.

Green souvenir menggunakan tanaman kaktus dan sukulen, dikarenakan tanaman kaktus dan sukulen mudah dalam perawatannya. Cukup menyiram seminggu sekali itu sudah tumbuh tidak memerlukan treatment khusus.

Ini dia beragam jenis tanaman kaktus untuk souvenir pernikahan. Adalah jenis kaktus noto kaktus, mamilaria, gimno kaktus dan lain sebagainya. Kita membuat semacam paguyuban atau kelompok tani yang melibatkan warga sekitar untuk pembibitannya kemudian mereka akan memberikan ke kita dalam bentuk tanaman yang siap panen. Akhirnya kita bisa memenuhi kebutuhan pasar baik wilayah Bandung maupun dari Sabang sampai Merauke.

Proses pembibitan kaktus untuk souvenir, cukup mengambil bibit dari indukan yang kemudian kita tempel atau grafting dengan media stam atau batang. Setelah proses penempelan kita akan tunggu hingga 3 bulan sampai tumbuh.

Setelah 3 bulan selanjutnya kita ke proses pemberian aksesoris. Setelah pemberian aksesoris kita mulai dengan pengemasan tananaman. Setelah pengemasan kita akan lakukan pengepakan kemudian kita kirim ke tangan konsumen di berbagai kota-kota besar di seluruh Indonesia.

Harga souvenir tanaman kaktus mulai dari Rp. 4500 per paketnya ada juga yang 5 ribuan, 6 ribuan dan seterusnya tergantung dari aksesoris, dan jenis tanaman itu sendiri.

Green souvenir bukan hanya untuk keperluan pesta pernikahan namun bisa juga digunakan untuk kegiatan kampanye lingkungan. Harapan kami agar souvenir yang berbahan dasar tanaman yang lebih ramah lingkungan akan menumbuhkan kecintaan pada tanaman dan berdampak luas terhadap lingkungan.

A general definition of succulents is that they are drought resistant plants in which the leaves, stem or roots have become more than usually fleshy by the development of water-storing tissue.[2] Other sources exclude roots as in the definition “a plant with thick, fleshy and swollen stems and/or leaves, adapted to dry environments.”[3] This difference affects the relationship between succulents and “geophytes” – plants that survive unfavorable seasons as a resting bud on an underground organ.[4] These underground organs, such as bulbs, corms and tubers, are often fleshy with water-storing tissues. Thus if roots are included in the definition, many geophytes would be classed as succulents. Plants adapted to living in dry environments such as succulents are termed xerophytes. However, not all xerophytes are succulents, since there are other ways of adapting to a shortage of water, e.g., by developing small leaves which may roll up or having leathery rather than succulent leaves.[5] Nor are all succulents xerophytes, since plants like Crassula helmsii are both succulent and aquatic.[6]

Those who grow succulents as a hobby use the term in a different way to botanists. In horticultural use, the term succulent regularly excludes cacti. For example, Jacobsen’s three volume Handbook of Succulent Plants does not cover cacti,[7] and “cacti and succulents” is the title or part of the title of many books covering the cultivation of these plants.[8][9][10] However, in botanical terminology, cacti are succulents.[2]Horticulturists may also exclude other groups of plants, e.g., bromeliads.[11] A practical, but unscientific, horticultural definition is “a succulent plant is any desert plant that a succulent plant collector wishes to grow.”[12] Such plants less often include geophytes (in which the swollen storage organ is wholly underground) but do include plants with a caudex,[13] which is a swollen above-ground organ at soil level, formed from a stem, a root or both.[4]

A further difficulty is that plants are not either succulent or non-succulent. In many genera and families there is a continuous gradation from plants with thin leaves and normal stems to those with very clearly thickened and fleshy leaves or stems, so that deciding what is a succulent is often arbitrary. Different sources may classify the same species differently.[14]
id=”firstHeading” class=”firstHeading” lang=”en”>Echeveria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Echeveria
Echeveria elegans0.jpg
Echeveria elegans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Crassulaceae
Subfamily: Sedoideae
Tribe: Sedeae
Subtribe: Sedinae
Genus: Echeveria
DC.[1]
Species
See text.
Synonyms
Courantia Lem.
Oliveranthus Rose
Oliverella Rose
Urbinia Rose[1]

Echeveria is a large genus of flowering plants in the Crassulaceae familynative to semi-desert areas of Central America, Mexico and northwestern South America.

Description[edit]

Plants may be evergreen or deciduous. Flowers on short stalks (cymes) arise from compact rosettes of succulent fleshy, often brightly coloured leaves.[2] Species are polycarpic, meaning that they may flower and set seed many times over the course of their lifetimes. Often numerous offsets are produced, and are commonly known as “hen and chicks“, which can also refer to other genera, such as Sempervivum, that are significantly different from Echeveria.

The genus is named after the 18th century Mexican botanical artist Atanasio Echeverría y Godoy.

Cultivation[edit]

Many Echeveria species are popular as ornamental garden plants. They are drought-resistant, although they do better with regular deep watering and fertilizing. Most will tolerate shade and some frost, although hybrids tend to be less tolerant. Most lose their lower leaves in winter; as a result, after a few years, the plants lose their attractive, compact appearance and need to be re-rooted or propagated. In addition, if not removed, the shed leaves may decay, harboring fungus that can then infect the plant.

Echeveria Carnicolor at Mount Holyoke’s Botanical Garden.

Propagation[edit]

They can be propagated easily by separating offsets, but also by leaf cuttings, and by seed if they are not hybrids.

Echeveria nodulosa – Painted Echeveria

Selected species[edit]

Cultivars and Hybrids[edit]

Echeveria has been extensively bred and hybridised. The following is a selection of available plants.

  • “Arlie Wright”
  • “Black Prince”
  • “Blue Heron”
  • “Blue Surprise” (E. × gilva)
  • “Dondo”
  • “Doris Taylor”
  • “Ebony” (E. agavoides cultivar)
  • “Frank Reinelt”
  • “Hoveyi”
  • “Lipstick” (E. agavoides cultivar)
  • “Oliver” (E. pulvinata cultivar)
  • “Opalina”
  • “Painted Lady”
  • “Perle von Nürnberg”
  • “Paul Bunyan”
  • “Red” (E. × gilva)
  • “Ruberia”
  • “Set-Oliver”
  • “Tippy”
  • “Victor Reiter” (E. agavoides cultivar)
  • “Wavy Curls”
  • “Worfield Wonder” (E. × derosa)

Echeveria glauca in a Connecticut greenhouse, kept at 77 degrees.

Echeveria “Perle Von Nurnberg”

“Perle von Nürnberg”[5] has gained the Royal Horticultural Society‘s Award of Garden Merit.

Formerly in Echeveria[edit]

Photo gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b “Genus: Echeveria DC.”Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-06-13. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  2. Jump up^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
  3. Jump up^ EcheveriaIntegrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  4. Jump up to:a b “GRIN Species Records of EcheveriaGermplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  5. Jump up^ “RHS Plant Selector – Echeveria “Perle von Nürnberg””. Retrieved 18 June 2013.

External links[edit]

id=”firstHeading” class=”firstHeading” lang=”en”>Sempervivum

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sempervivum
Sempervirum tectorum1.jpg
Flowering Sempervivum tectorum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Crassulaceae
Genus: Sempervivum
L.
Species
Sempervivum altum
Sempervivum arachnoideum
Sempervivum armenum
Sempervivum atlanticum
Sempervivum ballsii
Sempervivum borissovae
Sempervivum calcareum
Sempervivum cantabricum
Sempervivum caucasicum
Sempervivum ciliosum
Sempervivum davisii
Sempervivum dolomiticum
Sempervivum erythraeum
Sempervivum glabrifolium
Sempervivum ingwersenii
Sempervivum juvanii
Sempervivum kindingeri
Sempervivum kosaninii
Sempervivum leucanthum
Sempervivum macedonicum
Sempervivum marmoreum
Sempervivum minus
Sempervivum montanum
Sempervivum nevadense
Sempervivum octopodes
Sempervivum ossetiense
Sempervivum pittonii
Sempervivum pumilum
Sempervivum soculense
Sempervivum sosnowskyi
Sempervivum tectorum
Sempervivum thompsonianum
Sempervivum transcaucasicum
Sempervivum wulfenii
Sempervivum zeleborii

Sempervivum (Brit. /sɛmpəˈvvəm/,[1] U.S. sem-per-VEE-vum) is a genus of about 40 species of flowering plants in the Crassulaceaefamily, commonly known as houseleeks. Other common names include liveforever (the source of the taxonomical designation Sempervivum, literally “always/forever alive”) and hen and chicks, a name shared with plants of other genera as well. They are succulentperennials forming mats composed of tufted leaves in rosettes. In favourable conditions they spread rapidly via offsets, and several species are valued in cultivation as groundcover for dry, sunny locations.[2]

Habitat[edit]

Houseleeks exist from Morocco to Iran, through the mountains of Iberia, the Alps, Carpathians, Balkan mountains, Turkey, the Armenian mountains, in the northeastern part of the Sahara Desert, and the Caucasus. Their ability to store water in their thick leaves allows them to live on sunny rocks and stony places in the mountain, subalpine and alpine belts. Most are hardy to US zone 4, and will handle warm climates to about zone 8.

Subtropical origin[edit]

Sempervivum tectorum(common houseleek)

Morphologically, they are closely linked with the genera JovibarbaAeoniumGreenoviaAichryson, and Monanthes, occurring mainly in Macaronesia (Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira). Some botanists include some or all of these genera within a wider interpretation of Sempervivum, particularly Jovibarba.

Origin of name[edit]

The name Sempervivum has its origin in the Latin semper (“always”) and vivus (“living”), because this perennial plant keeps its leaves in winter and is very resistant to difficult conditions of growth.[3] The common name “houseleek” is believed to stem from the traditional practice of growing plants on the roofs of houses to ward off fire and lightning strikes. Some Welsh people still hold the old folk belief that having it grow on the roof of the house ensures the health and prosperity of those who live there.[4][5] The plant is not closely related to the true leek, which belongs to the onion family.

Other common names reflect the plant’s ancient association with Thor, the Norse god of thunder, and the Roman Jupiter. Hence names such as “Jupiter’s beard” and the German Donnerbart (“thunder beard”).[3]

Growth and reproduction[edit]

Houseleeks grow as tufts of perennial but monocarpicrosettes. Each rosette propagates asexually by lateral rosettes (offsets, “hen and chicks“), by splitting of the rosette (only Jovibarba heuffelii) or sexually by tiny seeds.

Sempervivum arachnoideum

Typically, each plant grows for several years before flowering. Their hermaphrodite flowers have first a male stage. Then the stamens curve themselves and spread away from the carpels at the center of the flower, so self-pollination is rather difficult. The colour of the flowers is reddish, yellowish, pinkish, or—seldom—whitish. In Sempervivum, the flowers are actinomorphic (like a star) and have more than six petals, while in Jovibarba, the flowers are campanulate (bell-shaped) and are pale green-yellow with six petals. After flowering, the plant dies, usually leaving many offsets it has produced during its life.

Identification[edit]

The genus Sempervivum is usually easy to recognize, although it may sometimes be confused with the genus Echeveria. However, its species are often not easy to identify. Even one single clone can look very different under various growth conditions (modifications) or different times of the year. The members of this genus are very similar and closely linked to each other. As a consequence, many subspeciesvarieties, and forms were described, without well-defined limits between them. As a second consequence, there is a high frequency of natural hybrids in this genus and the possibility of back-crossings of these. However, more or less 40 species can be individualized in the whole area of the genus, but there are many more local populations, without nomenclatural valour but sometimes with their own characters.

In the Alps, for example, the most distributed species are S. tectorum (common houseleek, sometimes called S. alpinum), S. montanum (mountain houseleek) and S. arachnoideum (cobwebbed houseleek), each one with several subspecies. More local are the yellow-flowered S. wulfenii and S. grandiflorum, and the beautiful limestone houseleek (S. calcareum). More rare are S. dolomiticumand mainly S. pittoniiS. pittonii is a small yellow-flowered jewel growing only on two mountains slopes near Kraubath in the Mur valley in Austria and is very threatened.[citation needed]

On roofs or old walls S. tectorum can be found, more or less wild, very far out of its natural area. It is a very old medicinal and witch-plant. Some superstitious people believe this plant is able to protect a house from lightning.[6]

Medicinal use[edit]

It has been used historically and is used presently as a medicinal herb. It has no known side effects (aside from being an emetic in large doses) or drug interactions. Common herbal uses are stopping bad cases of diarrhea by drinking the juice of the leaf or eating the leaves directly, and the juice is commonly applied directly to the skin for many of the same uses as aloe vera such as burns, warts and insect bites.[5][7] It is furthermore said to bring relief in cases of swellings and water retention.[8]

The famous English herbalist Culpepper says ‘Our ordinary Houseleek is good for all inward heats, as well as outward, and in the eyes or other parts of the body: a posset made of the juice is singularly good in all hot agues, for it cooleth and tempereth the blood and spirits and quencheth the thirst; and is also good to stay all defluction or sharp and salt rheums in the eyes, the juice being dropped into them. If the juice be dropped into the ears, it easeth pain…. It cooleth and restraineth all hot inflammations St. Anthony’s fire (Erysipelas), scaldings and burnings, the shingles, fretting ulcers, ringworms and the like; and much easeth the pain and the gout.’[4]

Garden and container plants[edit]

Although their subtropical cousins are very frost-sensitive, sempervivums are among the most frost-resistant succulents, making them popular garden plants. They tend to grow best in dry conditions with well-draining, sandy soil to prevent soggy roots. They require only moderate watering, especially during warmer months, with occasional protection from extreme sun exposure.[citation needed]

Sempervivums also make suitable plants for containers, and do well in breathable terracotta, concrete, and cement pots. They have also been known to grow in rock crevices, metal containers, succulent wreaths, roof shingles, and anywhere else that allows adequate root drainage.

Collectors are numerous and often have many different cultivars in their collections. Sempervivums are very variable plants and hence hundreds, maybe thousands of cultivars have been created, but a lot of them are not much different from each other. The main interest of these cultivars is not their flowers, but form and color of the rosette-leaves.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition 1989
  2. Jump up^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
  3. Jump up to:a b Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.
  4. Jump up to:a b “Houseleek”. Botanical.com.
  5. Jump up to:a b “House Leek”. Garden Herbs.
  6. Jump up^ Mrs M Grieve (1994). Mrs C F Leyel, ed. A Modern Herbal. London, United Kingdom: Tiger Books International. p. 422. ISBN 1855012499.
  7. Jump up^ “Find a Vitamin or Supplement: Houseleek”. WebMD.
  8. Jump up^ 1929-, Duke, James A., (2002). Handbook of medicinal herbs. Duke, James A., 1929- (2nd ed ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0849312841OCLC 48876592.

d=”firstHeading” class=”firstHeading” lang=”en”>Haworthia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Haworthia
Haworthia attenuata1SHSU.jpg
Haworthia attenuata
Scientific classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Asphodelaceae
Subfamily: Asphodeloideae
Genus: Haworthia
Duval
Synonyms[1]

Haworthia cymbiformis, showing the characteristic Haworthia flowers

Haworthia is a large genus of small succulent plants endemic to Southern Africa (MozambiqueNamibiaLesothoSwaziland and South Africa).[1]

Like the aloes, they are members of the subfamily Asphodeloideae and they generally resemble miniature aloes, except in their flowers, which are distinctive in appearance. Horticulturally they are popular garden and container plants.

Description and characteristics[edit]

Haworthias are small succulent plants, forming rosettes of leaves from 3 cm (1.2 in) to exceptionally 30 cm (12 in) in diameter, depending on the species. These rosettes are usually stemless but in some species stems reach up to 50 cm (20 in). The inflorescences of some species may exceed 40 cm (16 in) in height. The plants can grow solitary or can be clump-forming. Many species have firm, tough, fleshy leaves, usually dark green in colour, whereas others are softer and contain leaf windows with translucent panels through which sunlight can reach internal photosynthetic tissues. Their flowers are small, and generally white. Though they are very similar between species, flowers from the species in hexangulares generally have green striations and those from other species often have brown lines in the flowers. However, their leaves show wide variations even within one species. Additionally, when the plants are stressed (e.g deprived of water), their colours can change to reds and purples. Depriving them of nitrogen generally results in paler leaves[2].

Distribution[edit]

Most species are endemic to South Africa, with the greatest species diversity occurring in the south-western Cape. Some species do however extend into neighbouring territories, in Swaziland, southern Namibia and southern Mozambique (Maputaland).

Naming and taxonomy[edit]

Haworthia is a genus within the family Asphodelaceae, subfamily Asphodeloideae. The genus is named after the botanist Adrian Hardy Haworth. B. Bayer recognised approximately 60 species in a review of the genus in 2012, whereas other taxonomists are very much less conservative. Related genera are AloeGasteria and Astroloba and intergeneric hybrids are known. [3][4]

Subdivisions[edit]

The classification of the flowering plant subfamily Asphodeloideae is weak, and concepts of the genera are not well substantiated. Haworthia is similarly a weakly contrived genus. Because of their horticultural interest, its taxonomy has been dominated by amateur collectors, and the literature is rife with misunderstanding of what the taxa actually are or should be. Currently, this relatively loose genus is subdivided into three very distinct groups, traditionally labelled as sub-genera:

  • Haworthia, c. 42 spp. Typically green, stemless, soft-leaved species
  • Hexangulares (or genus Haworthiopsis, G.D.Rowley), 18 spp. Hard-leaved and sometimes stemmed species
  • Robustipedunculares (or genus Tulista, Raf.), 4 spp. Robust, hard-leaved species

Recent phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that the three sub-genera are actually relatively unrelated (Hexangulares was shown to be a sister-group of genus GasteriaRobustipedunculares more closely related to genus Astroloba, and Haworthia as an out-group related to Aloe). In recognition of the polyphyletic nature of the genus, it has been proposed that Hexangulares and Robustipedunculares be moved into new separate genera (Haworthiopsis and Tulista respectively).

Botanists had long noticed differences in the flowers the three subgenera, but had previously considered those differences to be inconsequential, although the differences between species in the same subgenus definitely are. The roots, leaves and rosettes do demonstrate some generic differences while wide variations occur even within one species.[5][6]

Species[edit]

There are about 151 accepted species of Haworthia listed in the Plant List site [1] produced in collaboration between the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. However, the actual number and identification of the species is not established; there are over forty species listed as “unresolved” for lack of sufficient information, and the full list reflects the difficulties of Haworthia taxonomy; it includes varieties and synonyms to a total of 966, even though it excludes various garden hybrids and cultivars.[7] The following list includes only the fully accepted species in the Plant List.

  1. Haworthia agnis Battista
  2. Haworthia akaonii M.Hayashi
  3. Haworthia albispina M.Hayashi
  4. Haworthia amethysta M.Hayashi
  5. Haworthia angustifolia Haw.
  6. Haworthia ao-onii M.Hayashi
  7. Haworthia aquamarina M.Hayashi
  8. Haworthia arabesqua M.Hayashi
  9. Haworthia arachnoidea (L.) Duval
  10. Haworthia aristata Haw.
  11. Haworthia attenuata (Haw.) Haw.
  12. Haworthia azurea M.Hayashi
  13. Haworthia bathylis M.Hayashi
  14. Haworthia bayeri J.D.Venter & S.A.Hammer
  15. Haworthia bella M.Hayashi
  16. Haworthia blackburniae W.F.Barker
  17. Haworthia bolusii Baker
  18. Haworthia borealis M.Hayashi
  19. Haworthia breueri M.Hayashi
  20. Haworthia bronkhorstii M.Hayashi
  21. Haworthia bruynsii M.B.Bayer
  22. Haworthia caerulea M.Hayashi & Breuer
  23. Haworthia caesia M.Hayashi
  24. Haworthia calva M.Hayashi
  25. Haworthia candida M.Hayashi
  26. Haworthia capillaris M.Hayashi
  27. Haworthia chloracantha Haw.
  28. Haworthia coarctata Haw.
  29. Haworthia compacta (Triebner) Breuer
  30. Haworthia cooperi Baker
  31. Haworthia crausii M.Hayashi
  32. Haworthia crinita M.Hayashi
  33. Haworthia crystallina M.Hayashi
  34. Haworthia cummingii Breuer & M.Hayashi
  35. Haworthia cymbiformis (Haw.) Duval
  36. Haworthia davidii (Breuer) M.Hayashi & Breuer
  37. Haworthia decipiens Poelln.
  38. Haworthia devriesii Breuer
  39. Haworthia diaphana M.Hayashi
  40. Haworthia diversicolor (Triebner & Poelln.) M.Hayashi
  41. Haworthia elizeae Breuer
  42. Haworthia emelyae Poelln.
  43. Haworthia emeralda M.Hayashi
  44. Haworthia eminens M.Hayashi
  45. Haworthia enigma M.Hayashi
  46. Haworthia esterhuizenii M.Hayashi
  47. Haworthia exilis M.Hayashi
  48. Haworthia fasciata (Willd.) Haw.
  49. Haworthia flavida M.Hayashi
  50. Haworthia floccosa M.Hayashi
  51. Haworthia florens M.Hayashi
  52. Haworthia floribunda Poelln.
  53. Haworthia fluffa M.Hayashi
  54. Haworthia foliosa Haw.
  55. Haworthia fukuyae M.Hayashi
  56. Haworthia glabrata (Salm-Dyck) Baker
  57. Haworthia glauca Baker
  58. Haworthia gracilis Poelln.
  59. Haworthia groenewaldii Breuer
  60. Haworthia hamata M.Hayashi
  61. Haworthia harryi M.Hayashi
  62. Haworthia hastata M.Hayashi
  63. Haworthia hayashii M.Hayashi
  64. Haworthia heidelbergensis G.G.Sm.
  65. Haworthia herbacea (Mill.) Stearn
  66. Haworthia hisui M.Hayashi
  67. Haworthia indigoa M.Hayashi
  68. Haworthia integra Poelln.
  69. Haworthia jadea M.Hayashi
  70. Haworthia jansenvillensis Breuer
  71. Haworthia jeffreis M.Hayashi
  72. Haworthia kemari M.Hayashi
  73. Haworthia kingiana Poelln.
  74. Haworthia koelmaniorum Oberm. & D.S.Hardy
  75. Haworthia lachnosa M.Hayashi
  76. Haworthia laeta M.Hayashi
  77. Haworthia latericia M.Hayashi
  78. Haworthia ligulata M.Hayashi
  79. Haworthia limifolia Marloth
  80. Haworthia lockwoodii Archibald
  81. Haworthia longiana Poelln.
  82. Haworthia maculata (Poelln.) M.B.Bayer
  83. Haworthia magnifica Poelln.
  84. Haworthia maraisii Poelln.
  85. Haworthia marginata (Lam.) Stearn
  86. Haworthia marmorata M.Hayashi
  87. Haworthia marumiana Uitewaal
  88. Haworthia marxii Gildenh.
  89. Haworthia maxima (L.) Duval
  90. Haworthia minima (Ait.) Haw.
  91. Haworthia minor (Aiton) Duval
  92. Haworthia mirabilis (Haw.) Haw.
  93. Haworthia mollis M.Hayashi
  94. Haworthia monticola Fourc.
  95. Haworthia mortonii Breuer
  96. Haworthia mucronata Haw.
  97. Haworthia mutica Haw.
  98. Haworthia nigra (Haw.) Baker
  99. Haworthia nigrata M.Hayashi
  100. Haworthia nortieri G.G.Sm.
  101. Haworthia oculata M.Hayashi
  102. Haworthia odetteae Breuer
  103. Haworthia ohkuwae M.Hayashi
  104. Haworthia opalina M.Hayashi
  105. Haworthia outeniquensis M.B.Bayer
  106. Haworthia pallidifolia (G.G.Sm.) M.Hayashi
  107. Haworthia parksiana Poelln.
  108. Haworthia pectinis M.Hayashi
  109. Haworthia pilosa M.Hayashi
  110. Haworthia pubescens M.B.Bayer
  111. Haworthia pulchella M.B.Bayer
  112. Haworthia pungens M.B.Bayer
  113. Haworthia pusilla M.Hayashi
  114. Haworthia pygmaea Poelln.
  115. Haworthia regalis M.Hayashi
  116. Haworthia regina M.Hayashi
  117. Haworthia reinwardtii (Salm-Dyck) Haw.
  118. Haworthia reticulata (Haw.) Haw.
  119. Haworthia retusa (L.) Duval
  120. Haworthia salina (Poelln.) M.Hayashi
  121. Haworthia sapphaia M.Hayashi
  122. Haworthia scabra Haw.
  123. Haworthia schoemanii M.Hayashi
  124. Haworthia scottii Breuer
  125. Haworthia semiviva (Poelln.) M.B.Bayer
  126. Haworthia serrata M.B.Bayer
  127. Haworthia sordida Haw.
  128. Haworthia sparsa M.Hayashi
  129. Haworthia springbokvlakensis C.L.Scott
  130. Haworthia subhamata M.Hayashi
  131. Haworthia subularis M.Hayashi
  132. Haworthia succinea M.Hayashi
  133. Haworthia tarkasia M.Hayashi
  134. Haworthia tauteae Archibald
  135. Haworthia teres M.Hayashi
  136. Haworthia tradouwensis Breuer
  137. Haworthia tretyrensis Breuer
  138. Haworthia tricolor (Breuer) M.Hayashi
  139. Haworthia truncata Schönland
  140. Haworthia truterorum Breuer & Marx
  141. Haworthia turgida Haw.
  142. Haworthia variegata L.Bolus
  143. Haworthia veltina M.Hayashi
  144. Haworthia venetia M.Hayashi
  145. Haworthia venosa (Lam.) Haw.
  146. Haworthia villosa M.Hayashi
  147. Haworthia violacea M.Hayashi
  148. Haworthia viscosa (L.) Haw.
  149. Haworthia vlokii M.B.Bayer
  150. Haworthia wittebergensis W.F.Barker
  151. Haworthia zantneriana Poelln.
  152. Haworthia zenigata M.Hayashi

A selection of Haworthia plants in cultivation

Cultivation[edit]

There is widespread special collector interest, and some species such as Haworthia attenuata and Haworthia cymbiformis, are fairly common house and garden plants.

Almost all Haworthia species are naturally adapted for semi-shade conditions (in habitat they tend to grow under bushes or rock overhands) and they are therefore healthiest in shade or semi-shade. Some species like Haworthia pumila and Haworthia truncata can be adapted to tolerate full-sun however.

All Haworthia species favour extremely well-drained soil (in habitat they tend to grow in poor sands, in rocky areas). Watering depends on the species (winter or summer rainfall) but most of the common species are tolerant of a variety of watering routines. Rarer species may have more specific requirements.[8]

Haworthia species reproduce both through seed and through budding, or offsets. Certain species or clones may be more successful or rapid in offset production, and these pups are easily removed to yield new plants once a substantial root system has developed on the offshoot. Less reliably, the plants may also be propagated through leaf cuttings, and in some instances, through tissue culture.

Gallery for identification[edit]

Haworthia[edit]

Hexangulares (Haworthiopsis)[edit]

Coarctatae[edit]

Stemmed (caulescent) species:

Trifariae[edit]

Species with a three-way (“trifarious”) leaf arrangement

Venosae[edit]

Species with splayed leaves bearing vein-markings (“venose”) on the upper leaf surface

Robustipedunculares (Tulista)[edit]

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